CBT

CBT is a collaborative therapeutic approach that teaches clients important connections between thoughts, behaviours, emotions, and physical sensations.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Graphic

CBT is an evidence-based therapeutic approach and is considered the gold standard for many psychological disorders, including anxiety disorders and depression. CBT enables individuals to become aware of unhelpful thought patterns and challenge these thoughts. This allows an individual to develop a more balanced perspective towards difficult and triggering situations. In doing so, people learn to see triggering situations from a variety of perspectives. This can enable people to better understand the full picture of what might be happening to them and why they might be getting stuck in unhelpful thinking patterns. It can allow for a decrease in avoidance behaviour. And it allows people to manage difficult emotions and gain new perspectives.

CBT incorporates behavioural approaches (i.e., Exposure and Response Prevention; behavioural experiments) to allow people to begin to approach situations that are usually avoided due to high levels of distress. In doing so, individuals learn that what they fear might not happen. They also learn that they can embrace the uncertainty of not always knowing what the outcome of a feared situation might be.

People learn, through CBT skills, that they are able to tolerate distressing situations and their anxiety. Individuals often experience distress and catastrophic thoughts during exposure work. With enough practice and repeated exposure work, people will report that they can handle the difficult thoughts and feelings. This process is very important for ongoing change. Individuals will practice both in vivo (i.e., in real life) and imaginal exposure work as part of CBT. 

CBT also offers individuals several types of cognitive skills, which allow for shifts in our thought processes as well as shifts in our relationships to these thoughts. Although we cannot eliminate the thoughts we have, we can learn to have a different relationship to them. This can allow for people to have a different experience when these thoughts enter their minds. People learn strategies such as thought records, continuum techniques and the responsibility pie. These techniques teach people to slow down their automatic thoughts. They can then catch these thoughts and look at them from different and more balanced perspectives.

The exploration of core belief work is also an important skill as it allows individuals to better understand what is driving their fears and unhelpful thought patterns. Individuals find these skills and strategies to be very powerful. They allow for insight into what fuels difficult reactions in a variety of situations. Research has shown, time and again, strong efficacy for undergoing CBT to treat a variety of mental health issues.

Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) is a specific type of CBT also offered at FTPS. It has been developed for individuals who have undergone trauma. Through this therapy, individuals will learn to challenge stuck points about the trauma. This will allow for a different type of processing to take place regarding current and past trauma. It will also allow individuals to decrease avoidance they might be experiencing and process trauma-related emotions differently. 

Overall, CBT is a skills-based approach which enables people to, ultimately, become their own therapist. In doing so, individuals learn how to approach challenging situations and how to keep pushing themselves into situations that once appeared too daunting to face. The skills learned can be used throughout one’s life to challenge difficult thoughts and behaviours. CBT is a powerful approach that offers many tools for individuals dealing with a variety of presentations.

CBT treatment

All our associates have extensive expertise with CBT treatment. We use this approach when working with individuals with OCD and OCD-Related Disorders. We also use CBT in group formats for OCD and for a variety of other presenting issues, including anxiety, depression, trauma, academic-related stress, anger management, emotional issues and life transitions.

Frequently Asked Questions

Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based approach to treating mental health issues. Therapists have found it effective in treating various conditions, including OCD in teens and adults, depression, anxiety and a variety of emotional and behavioural difficulties.

At FTPS, CBT therapy is used by therapists to guide individuals in understanding the nature of their presenting issues. CBT is a highly effective approach for mental health conditions and has been around for decades. It has years and years of research to support its effectiveness for psychological illnesses.

CBT for teens involves the therapist helping them to develop better coping strategies and techniques.

Strategies that are part of CBT therapy for adults and adolescents include:

  • Provide psychoeducation about the nature of anxiety and/or depression or trauma
  • Help individuals to learn to catch their automatic thoughts
  • Allow individuals to identify unhelpful thinking styles and how they impact their thoughts and feelings
  • Understand connections between thoughts, feelings and behaviours
  • Challenge anxious or negative automatic thoughts and learn to gather evidence for and against these thoughts
  • Develop perspective from negative thinking styles
  • Understand core beliefs and how to shift them
  • Decrease avoidance behaviours and learn to face our fears

Cognitive processing therapy is a particular type of CBT. It is offered by FTPS therapists for individuals experiencing symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma can alter how an individual views themselves, others and the world around them. Individuals might believe they are to blame for the traumatic event that occurred to them. They might also believe that the world is a dangerous place following trauma. These types of stuckpoints can prevent someone from fully processing the trauma and living a meaningful life following the event. Cognitive processing therapy involves individuals gradually learning to challenge their stuckpoints associated with their trauma. In doing so, one learns to view these stuckpoints differently. As in other types of CBT, you will learn to gather evidence for and against the stuckpoints you have. In doing so, you are able to loosen the rigidity of these stuckpoints. As one’s thoughts about the trauma become less sticky, they are able to move towards different perspectives and enhance emotional processing of the trauma.

Looking for psychologists near me? Look no further than FTPS! We have therapists, psychologists, psychotherapists, social workers and occupational therapists! We provide CBT for teens, psychotherapy for depression, treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder, psychotherapy for panic disorder, cognitive processing therapy for PTSD, treatment for skin picking and so much more!

FTPS therapists use cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism as it helps individuals who have tendencies to: complete tasks in very particular ways, control situations and outcomes excessively and often set very high standards for work, education and relationships.

Therapists using CBT therapy for perfectionism may treat it as co-occurring with other mental issues, such as anxiety, depression, OCD and academic-related anxiety.

Individuals who might develop perfectionist tendencies:

  • Often experience anxiety at the thought of performing less than the high standards they set for themselves
  • Often experience interpersonal difficulties as a result of their perfectionistic tendencies
  • Often feel more comfortable when things are well planned out and do not deviate from what was expected
  • May have difficulty delegating tasks to others as they prefer to carry things out themselves
  • Might become frustrated at others when things are carried out differently than they would have liked
  • May struggle when plans change in a last minute fashion

When using cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism, our therapists will use the following skills to help them:

  • Provide psychoeducation about the different types of perfectionism that people experience
  • Conduct behavioural experiments to gradually approach situations in a less perfectionistic manner
  • Develop distress tolerance skills to help fight the urges to complete tasks in a perfectionistic manner
  • Understand and practice being “good enough” versus “perfect” – focusing first on areas that feel “low risk”

Need psychologists near me online? We have got you covered at FTPS! In addition to psychologists conducting treatment online, so does the rest of our team! Conduct us today to find out more about our virtual therapy options!

At FTPS, our therapists offer CBT therapy as an effective method to treat perfectionistic tendencies. CBT allows individuals to develop an understanding of the connections between thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Through this understanding, behavioural experiments can be created. These allow individuals to test out situations with a different approach. People make predictions before and after an experiment. And then they reflect on how things actually turn out. Therapists guide individuals through the development of these skills.

When anxiety is also a presenting issue, FTPS therapists use CBT for anxiety to help with perfectionistic beliefs as well as anxiety. Our therapists help individuals develop the following skills when engaging in cognitive behaviour therapy for perfectionism and co-occurring anxiety:

  • Develop self-awareness regarding automatic thoughts and how those can impact their mood and behaviour
  • Try out new behaviours, in a graduated manner, that might feel uncomfortable at first and develop a tolerance for the discomfort
  • Lean into situations that are distressing or anxiety-provoking
  • Challenge core beliefs about expectations and standards
  • Explore the impact that anxiety and perfectionism can have on relationships and develop skills to manage this
  • Incorporate loved ones into treatment, as needed, to provide psychoeducation and skills

Looking for psychologists near me online? Look no further than FTPS! Our team of mental health clinicians provides virtual therapy on our secure platform. Contact us today to find out more!

Cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder as well as treatment for psychotherapy for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias.

FTPS therapists help individuals recognize the feelings associated with the unhelpful thinking styles in response to anxiety-producing triggers. Therapists assist individuals to better understand their triggers. They also demonstrate different ways that they can relate to anxiety. Developing a different relationship to one’s anxiety can be very helpful in terms of living a more meaningful life.

CBT therapy helps the patient face uncomfortable and negative thoughts. FTPS therapists begin psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder and other anxiety disorders by introducing the individual to the CBT model.

When learning this model, there are several aspects that are very helpful:

  • Individuals learn the connections between their thoughts, feelings and behaviour
  • People learn the role of their physical sensations and how they can also get triggered during anxiety
  • People learn that anxiety is not dangerous. They learn to confront fears in gradual steps
  • Individuals begin to plan exposure therapy work after understanding the CBT model

Looking for CBT therapy near me? FTPS provides cognitive behaviour therapy throughout Ontario and BC. Contact us today!

FTPS therapists use cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with Exposure and Response Prevention therapy (ERP) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. Therapists consider both of these approaches as ideal for treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

OCD therapy requires CBT treatment with the therapist as well as skill practice that individuals can do in-between sessions. This practice is important to ensure the effectiveness of the therapy. Sessions with a therapist might take place weekly or bi-weekly. This can be discussed with your individual therapist.

To help individuals with symptoms of OCD, FTPS therapists begin with a CBT model of OCD. This allows people to understand how treatment will progress. This is a collaborative process between the individual and the therapist.

 CBT therapy involves using exposure and response prevention therapy (ERP) to treat symptoms of OCD.  Individuals with OCD will experience compulsive behaviours in response to their intrusive thoughts. This can happen when they are exposed to certain internal or external triggers. Using ERP therapy, our therapists will work with individuals to lean into anxiety and face the things they fear.

With regular therapy, both CBT and ERP can help individuals to face things they fear, challenge obsessional doubt, tolerate uncertainty, and challenge their appraisals of their intrusive thoughts. Wanting to find OCD therapists near me? Look no further than FTPS! We have a team of mental health clinicians who work with individuals with OCD. Reach out and learn more today!

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is considered to be a lifelong condition or a chronic mental health issue. Therapists suggest OCD follows a waxing and waning phase. This is similar to other medical conditions, such as diabetes or asthma.

Individuals require OCD therapy when their symptoms take up significant periods of time; often 1-2 hours or more per day. This can impact someone’s quality of life and be significantly interfering.

At FTPS, our therapists have seen people make great improvements in their symptoms of OCD. Individuals are able to face their fears and challenge their beliefs. Individuals also learn to better understand the idea of obsessional doubt and learn to trust their here and now sensory experiences.

CBT therapy for OCD involves individuals engaging in exposure therapy work. This allows for them to face their fears and learn new things about their experiences. Individuals might also learn to use thought records to challenge core fears that drive their OCD. Individuals engaging in cognitive behaviour therapy show changes in their relationship to their intrusive thoughts. This allows for an increased quality of life. It also allows people to better engage in meaningful activities. Overall, mental health has improved.

Individuals who have made progress with their OCD treatment are also to engage in daily exposures and face situations that used to cause them significant anxiety. Wanting OCD treatment near me? FTPS is the place to go! We have a collaborative team of mental health professionals who want to help you with your symptoms of OCD! Reach out to us today!

At FTPS, our therapists deliver CBT therapy with exposure and response therapy (ERP) to treat individuals with symptoms of OCD. The aim is to help individuals better understand their OCD and create a different relationship to the anxiety and distress they experience.

Cognitive behaviour therapy, with ERP is an evidence-based treatment for OCD. Other types of approaches are also integrated into a CBT approach for OCD. These include:

  • Mindfulness-based approaches
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

Inference-based CBT is another evidence-based approach that has been used to help individuals with OCD. It is conceptualized as a process-based CBT approach. Within this approach, individuals learn about obsessional doubt and how this forms the basis of their OCD story. They also learn to challenge this obsessional doubt with trusting their sensory experiences in the here and now. This approach allows individuals to gain more trust in themselves and what they are doing as opposed to what their OCD story convinces them of. FTPS therapists use I-CBT for OCD as well.

Many individuals with symptoms of OCD are teens and CBT for adolescents provides them with skills and strategies to move forward with a better quality of life.

Individuals with OCD can also have symptoms of social anxiety disorder. In this case, psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder can be helpful, in addition to CBT therapy for symptoms of OCD. For both types of symptoms, exposure work can be very effective.

CBT for anxiety also uses exposure therapy. In working with individuals with both OCD and anxiety in general, exposure work is very helpful. Individuals learn to gradually face their fears and engage in meaningful activities, instead of ongoing avoidance behaviour. Wanting OCD treatment near me? FTPS provides treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder throughout Ontario and BC. We provide a great deal of treatment on our virtual therapy platform. Reach out to learn more!

According to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), OCD has various subtypes based on the presence of obsessions/compulsions in the patient.

When obsessions and/or compulsion are time consuming and lead to frequent disruption in your daily functioning, it may warrant a further assessment of whether symptoms are meeting criteria for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

The various types of intrusive thoughts that one might experience in the context of OCD may include:

  • Contamination or germ-related obsessions
  • Harm-related obsessions
  • Symmetry or ordering obsessions
  • Sexual-intrusive thoughts

In response to these obsessions, individuals may develop a variety of compulsions. These may include:

  • Cleaning or washing compulsions
  • Mental review or “figuring it out” compulsions
  • Checking compulsions
  • Reassurance-seeking or confessing “bad thought”

The list above is not exhaustive and OCD can actually be about anything and everything!

Some individuals require OCD therapy when their intrusive thoughts are distressing and their compulsions (in response to the obsessions) become time consuming and significantly interfere in their life.

There are other types of OCD-related behaviours. These can be found in the DSM-5 as well and include:

  • Excoriation (skin picking issue)
  • Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder)
  • Body-dysmorphic Disorder

OCD affects children, teenagers, and adults. Individuals seeking OCD therapy can be of all ages. Now, OCD therapists near me are no longer hard to find! FTPS offers treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder throughout Ontario and BC.

Individuals may require OCD therapy if they are showing specific signs and symptoms of OCD. Treatment is also beneficial when these symptoms are significantly interfering in daily functioning.

Therapists at FTPS start with an initial clinical assessment to better understand whether an individual requires treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Potential symptoms of OCD may include:

  • Individuals experiencing intrusive and distressing thoughts, images or urges that pop into their minds and are difficult to get rid of; these often cause significant distress or anxiety
  • In response to these obsessions, individuals experience compulsions and/or rituals that are time consuming and interfering; compulsions are often performed to suppress the thoughts or try to neutralize them in some way
  • Compulsions are best understood as repetitive behaviours (i.e., hand washing, ordering, checking) or internal mental acts (i.e., praying, counting, repeating) that an individual will feel compelled to perform in response to their intrusive thoughts
  • Although compulsions are performed in response to obsessions, they are not necessarily connected to the intrusive thoughts in a logical way and are carried out in an excessive manner
  • Both obsessions and compulsions take up at more than one hour per day or are significantly distressing or cause impairment in terms of social functioning, work or other important areas of one’s life


FTPS therapists look for all the above mentioned symptoms. Individuals meeting criteria will benefit from treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Wanting OCD treatment near me? If you live in Ontario or BC, just reach out to FTPS! We offer treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder.

Treatment for anxiety involving concerns around health-related issues benefit from cognitive behaviour therapy. Individuals that experience this, referred to as Illness Anxiety Disorder by the DSM-5, often experience heightened concern about having a serious illness or contracting one.

Individuals will often be concerned about their health and experience a great deal of anxiety in response to their potential health status.

 FTPS therapists treat individuals for health anxiety using cognitive behaviour therapy. Although Illness Anxiety disorder is actually a somatic symptom disorder, it responds to CBT in a similar way to other anxiety disorders. CBT is very effective in treating it. CBT therapy helps individuals to better understand the connection between their thoughts, emotions and behaviours in the context of their health anxiety. CBT for teens takes a similar approach.

CBT therapy provides important tools and strategies. 

The treatment for health anxiety may include:

  • Developing an understanding between your thoughts, emotions, behaviours and body sensations
  • Learning about your body sensations and how you might engage in unhelpful interpretations of these feelings
  • Learning to challenge unhelpful thoughts regarding the interpretation of the body sensations themselves
  • Learning a different approach to one’s anxiety and developing a different relationship and perspective regarding anxiety about personal health status
  • Integration of an ACT perspective can also be helpful as one learns to tolerate difficult emotions and thoughts they are having

Hard to find a psychologist near me online? Look no further than FTPS! We have therapists and psychologists able to provide you throughout Ontario and BC. We provide services on a virtual therapy platform. We provide accessible and flexible treatment!

Individuals showing a tendency to pick their skin may have a condition known as excoriation disease. It’s a psychological disorder and requires regular psychotherapy to help individuals cope with the issue. Excoriation disorder belongs to the types of mental health issues known as Body Focused Repetitive Behaviours (BFRBs).

At FTPS, our therapists offer various approaches as a treatment for skin picking, which include:

  • Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
  • Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)
  • Habit reversal training (HRT)
  • Group therapy sessions

Treatment for skin picking requires psychotherapy. FTPS therapists will discuss issues in depth with you to understand the pattern of excoriation.

Individuals may pick throughout their body or focus on certain areas, such as biting their lips, picking fingertips and fingernails. Individuals may pick on other areas of the skin’s surface. A qualified therapist will help individuals to develop a greater awareness of when the skin picking occurs. This can be helpful as this behaviour often occurs during periods of boredom or as a self-soothing strategy.

Individuals showing body focused repetitive behaviours may also have OCD, anxiety, and panic disorder. Our qualified therapists offer CBT therapy to help with BFRBs in a variety of ways:

  • Teach awareness training skills to enhance one’s understanding of when the picking occurs
  • Understand what thoughts accompany this behaviour
  • Provide individuals with different behavioural barriers to the picking; these are tried out by the individuals and discussed in therapy
  • Work with individuals to figure out the best competing responses instead of skin picking behaviour
  • Challeng with unhelpful thoughts that may accompany the skin picking behaviour
  • Learn acceptance and commitment therapy strategies to tolerate the difficult thoughts and emotions that might emerge during skin picking behaviours
  • Practice mindfulness strategies when experiencing skin picking urges

Looking for psychologists near me? Look no further! FTPS provides therapy for skin picking with psychologists as well as other mental health clinicians on their team! Reach out to us today!

Skin-picking tendencies are best understood as an OCD-related disorder. It is categorized as an OCD-related disorder in the DSM-5, where affected individuals engage in frequent skin picking. It is also referred to as a Body Focused Repetitive Behaviour (BFRB).

Skin picking is considered an OCD-related disorder because it shares some similarities to OCD. For example, individuals may experience urges to touch or pick their skin. However, these urges are not typically preceded by intrusive thoughts or images. They might be triggered by an urge to pick a scab so that one feels “smooth” on their skin or to eliminate any perceived imperfections. Skin picking also shares similar features to hair pulling, or trichotillomania – another BFRB. In the latter presentation, individuals will have urges to pull hair on various parts of their body (scalp, eyelashes, genitalia).

OCD therapy is modified when providing treatment for individuals with BFRBs. Instead, therapists will often deliver CBT treatment, including Habit Reversal Training as well as the Comprehensive Behavioural Model (Comb). Therapists will also integrate elements of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) into treatment.

Treatment for skin picking will include the following skill development:

  • Tracking different SCAMP domains associated with skin picking and hair pulling: sensory (physical and sensory experiences that encourage BFRBs); cognitive (thoughts); affective (emotions); motor (body positions) and place (settings in which BFRBs happen most often
  • Teaching individuals to use barriers against their skin picking behaviour
  • Encouraging individuals to use competing responses instead of the BFRBs
  • Working with individuals to challenge thoughts associated with the skin picking
  • Exploring values-based activities that could be done instead of engaging in BFRBs – while learning to tolerate the urges

Wanting psychologists near me online? At FTPS, we have a multidisciplinary team of mental health professionals. This includes therapists, psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists and psychotherapists. We treat skin picking, hair pulling and so much more!

Cognitive-behaviour therapy is a treatment for various mental health conditions.

CBT for adolescents is effective when delivered by a  CBT-trained therapist. At FTPS, our therapists provide CBT therapy for various adolescent and teenage mental health conditions. 

Teenagers engaged in CBT therapy have the opportunity to learn:

  • Connections between thoughts, emotions and behaviours
  • Understanding any avoidance behaviours one might have and their purpose
  • Learning how anxiety is not dangerous, just uncomfortable
  • Learning the impact of rumination on one’s mood and motivation
  • Planning out pleasant activities and learning to follow a plan and not one’s mood, especially when mood is low
  • Leaning into anxiety and facing our fears
  • Planning out exposure therapy work
  • Receiving coached, in-session exposure therapy support
  • Learning different cognitive strategies – including thought record work

CBT for adolescents allows teenagers to understand things that trigger them. In response to these triggers, they might experience difficult thoughts and feelings. Strategies to challenge these unhelpful thinking styles can lead to differences in emotions and behaviour.

CBT for teens may focus on symptoms of anxiety. It can also focus on counselling for depression. At FTPS, we also provide cognitive processing therapy for PTSD. Contact us today to find out more!

Teenagers go through a lot of changes – developmentally and emotionally. Being able to speak with a therapist during this time can be very helpful for long-term well-being. CBT for adolescents can focus on issues with mood and anxiety. It can also explore issues related to family dynamics and peer relationships. Looking for CBT near me? Check us out at FTPS! Our team of mental health clinicians provides CBT for a variety of issues, including treatment for generalized anxiety disorder, psychotherapy for depression, treatment for trichotillomania/hair pulling and treatment for skin picking.

CBT therapy for adolescents, similar to adults, has long standing evidence to support its effectiveness. Therapists help teens learn therapeutic techniques, which enhances their well-being as they work through various psychological issues.

Teenagers will present to therapy with a variety of mental health conditions:

  • Anxiety and panic attacks
  • ADHD
  • Behavioural problems
  • Problems with mood, such as depression or persistent low mood
  • Eating issues (anorexia/bulimia)
  • Insomnia (sleeplessness)
  • OCD
  • Body Focused Repetitive Behaviours

FTPS therapists provide OCD therapy and CBT for anxiety for teenagers and adolescents. Its effectiveness with teenagers has made it an ideal choice for therapists in treating a wide range of mental health issues. Within these approaches, teens will learn a variety of strategies. These include:

  • Connections between thoughts, emotions and behaviours
  • Tracking moods and activities to better understand what activities increase or decrease anxiety
  • Understanding avoidance behaviours and the purpose of them
  • Learning how anxiety is not dangerous, just uncomfortable
  • Learn about the impact of worry and more effective problem solving
  • Leaning into anxiety and facing our fears
  • Creating exposure hierarchies that allow one to understand how to approach activities that have been avoided
  • Planning out exposure therapy work
  • Learning different cognitive strategies – including thought record work and responsibility pie
  • Being provided with coached exposure therapy in session – virtually or in your community
  • CBT for teens provides effective care for individuals when they are younger. This can allow for long-term health and wellness

Wanting CBT near me? Reach out to us at FTPS! We provide CBT therapy across Ontario and BC!

Depression is one of the most prevalent psychological issues among people. Individuals – both teenagers and adults, may require psychotherapy for depression.

Our therapists at FTPS offer CBT therapy as an effective technique to cope with depressive behaviours.

Clinical studies support the idea that undergoing cognitive behavioural therapy for depression helps patients experience a reduced relapse of symptoms. CBT is an ideal therapy for battling depression since:

  • It teaches individuals to recognize their unhelpful thinking styles and how this impacts feelings and behaviours
  • It teaches people to engage in pleasant activities in an effort to elevate one’s mood over time
  • It may incorporate elements of mindfulness to allow individuals to gain present moment awareness and distance themselves from ruminations about the past or worries about the future

Psychotherapy for depression also helps individuals to become activated and engage in behaviours, despite experiencing low mood. This is referred to as Behavioural Activation and it is a key component of CBT therapy for depression. It involves the idea that we need to “follow a plan and not our mood”. Our mood is not a very good guide when we are feeling down. However, by planning activities that we have enjoyed in the past, we can often increase our engagement. Our mood will become elevated over time in response.